If you practice sports, you should also know the characteristics of the human musculature and the active musculoskeletal system a little more accurately. With this basic knowledge GYM-TV.NET helps you to better understand different types of training.
The body is made for motion. Regular work out will contribute to your health. Regular exercise will strengthen the heart and cardiovascular system; it activates the immune system, regulates weight and stimulates brain activity.
Regular training means personal freedom, independence and quality of life. Focused training will increase the mass of the muscles which results in a faster metabolism that will burn more calories. Another advantage is the release of endorphins. The feeling of happiness will contribute to your wellness and will increase the motivation to move the body. Depending on the type of sports cardiovascular system, strength, coordination, agility or relaxation will be the focus of the training. It is advisable to work out more than once a week for about 75 to 150 minutes with medium or high intensity that move all muscle regions.
Musculoskeletal system is the umbrella term for all structures and elements that are necessary for all kinds of motion. We differentiate between the active and passive musculoskeletal system.
The active musculoskeletal system includes all muscles of the human body. It is the engine that moves the passive structures like bones and joints. Every muscle is connected at two points by the tendons; the head (movable) and the incident (stiff). The striated muscles, the skeletal muscles, are subdivided into face, torso, hip flexors, upper leg, lower leg, buttocks, shoulders, chest, upper arm and lower arm.
The synchronous cooperation of the muscles is essential to perform complex motions. Some muscles work independently, some muscles cooperate with others and some oppose other muscular motions. This is called the muscular chain. Every healthy human has 656 muscles. For men they make up for about 40 percent of the body mass. For women they make up for 23 percent of body mass.
1. Agonist – is the dominant muscle performing a motion
2. Antagonist – is the muscle that opposes the motion (contrary motion)
3. Synergists –are the supporting muscles of a motion
The human skeleton consists of 212 bones, which are connected by the joints, tendons and ligaments. These connections assure the stability of the body and support the motions.
The passive musculoskeletal system consists of the skeleton, the bones, the cartilage, tendons, ligaments and connective tissue which are set into motion by the active musculoskeletal system.
The spinal column consists of 32 out of the 34 vertebral bodies of the human body. This agile and stabilizing part of the human body is the base of all motions. It also protects the spinal cord and the vertebral discs absorb shocks.
The knee joint is the largest joint of the body and it connects the upper leg, shin and kneecap. The inner and outer meniscus absorb shocks and assure, in combination with the anterior and posterior cruciate ligament, the stability of the joint.
The shoulder joint connects the humeral head (upper arm) and the shoulder blade. It is the most flexible joint of the human body and is stabilized by muscles and ligaments.
A contusion can easily cause a torn ligament. The bleeding in the inner part of the joint will produce a bluish-red swelling. For first aid use a compression bandage, elevate the bruised joint and apply some ice. Rest for at least 2 to 3 days.
A distortion happens when the range of motion gets overstretched. Tendons, ligaments and joint caps get overstretched and small tears in the tissue occur. This often happens to the upper ankle joint, knees, shoulders and finger joints. To reduce the pain, use kinesiological tape or use a splint.
A luxation (dislocation) can easily occur because of the high flexibility of the shoulders that has very little stabilizing bones. The head can get displaced and this can lead to a torn ligament. To cure a luxation, use a triangular bandage to stabilize the arm. Do not try to relocate the joint. This should only be done by an orthopedist.